Sunday, July 25, 2010
A leader is a person who inspires people in a desired direction. He sets the vision for an organization and initiates change. He aligns people and empowers them to achieve the goals. He is more informal in behavior. A leader has stylistic gift of grace and enjoys power
A manager gets things done. He helps in achieving the vision by monitoring and controlling the employees. He plans the path towards achieving the goals. He has a status and authority.
In an organization, both leader and manager strive towards the same goals. But their style of functioning is different. A leader achieves the goals by empowering the people while a manager achieves by monitoring and controlling people. A manager is directly involved at the field level in achieving the goals while leader is indirectly involved. The common functions of leader and manager are
a) Decision making
b) Human relation
c) Achieving vision
A leader performs decision making by setting a vision while a manager does so by planning and budgeting.
A leader has a informal relationship with his followers and inspires them to achieve the goals while Manager has a formal relationship with subordinates and organizes and staffs them
A leader achieving the vision by communicating the vision while manager strives to achieve vision by monitoring and controlling the subordinates.
A manager is wary of creation of power centres. Hence he monitors and controls subordinates after delegating authority to them.
For optimal effectiveness of an organization , both leaders and managers are essential.
Monday, July 12, 2010
Rest of the powers ie administrative,legislative and financial powers are bifurcated
The legislative powers are divided into 3 lists
Union , State and concurrent lists
Legislation on union subjects only by parliament
Legislation on state subjects only by state and under exceptional circumstance by parliament
Legislation on concurrent subjects by state and parliament with parliament getting higher priority
The exceptions under which parliament can legislate in state are
• When rajyasabha says so
• When two states request
• During national emergency
• During prez rule
• To implement international treaties and agreements
Also the centre can take control of state legislature when
• When governor reserves
• When prez asks to reserve
• Certain state subjects like restrictions on freedom of state and commerce
Executive powers are divided on same lines as legislative powers.
So Executive power of centre is on matters related to subjects in union list and any other matter that arises out of international agreements
Executive power of state is on subjects in state and concurrent list.
Hence laws on concurrent subject are made by centre and executed by state
The state must exercise power in such a way that
1. it is in line with laws of parliament and state
2. The centre’s executive power is not impeded
If the centre’s orders aren’t complied with, then centre can take coercive action against state under art 365 and impose prez rule(356)
The cntre gives suggestion/directions in matters of
1. Establishing and maintaining communication
2. Protection of railways in the state
3. Ensuring education in local language till primary stage
4. Drawing up schemes for welfare of ST in state
Unlike the division of powers of legislative powers which is rigid, in case of executive powers is flexible.
Mutual delegation of executive powers is possible
Prez can delegate centres executive power to state with consent of state
Parliament can also by law confer an executive power on a subject in union list to state.
A governor of state can delegate any of the executive functions of state onto centre with centre’s consent
Hence a centre can delegate its executive powers to state by consent or legislation while a state can delegate its powers to centre oly by consent
Sunday, July 4, 2010
The geologists divided the periods of earth into 4 eras. They are
1. Azoic era(4500-3500 mya)-No life
2. Protozoic(3500-600 mya)-Unicellular
3. Paleozoic(600-230 mya)-Piesces,Amphibians,Primitive Reptiles
· Cambrian period
4. Mesozoic(230-65 mya)
· Cretaceous(135 mya)-Purgatorius evolved(75 mya)
5. Cenozoic(65 my onwards)
Ø Teritiary period
· Palaeocene(65-54 mya)-Archaic primates-
· Eocene(54-36 mya)-True primates-
· Oligocene(36-23 mya)-New and Old world Monkeys
· Miocene(23-5 mya)-Dryopithecus,Dendropithecus-16 mya,Ramapithecus(adapted to terrestrial as well)-10 mya
· Pliocene(5-2 mya)-Giant apes in china and india-gigantopithecines
Ø Quarternary Period
· Pleistocene(2m-10kya)-Homonid evolution-australopithecus to Homo sapien sapiens
Pliocene-Plesiadapis, Purgatorius, navajovius, Carbolestis, Plesiolestis
Oligocene-New world and old world monkeys,fossils at fayum beds,Egypt,South America and eastern Africa