Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Concerns over RTI

My article on concerns over RTI published in viewspaper


Saturday, August 18, 2012


Rachel Briggs and Janelle Meyer

(Note: authorship is arranged stratigraphically with the most recent author listed first)

Basic Premises:

Structuralism was predominately influenced by the schools of phenomenology and of Gestalt psychology, both of which were fostered in Germany between 1910 and the 1930s (Sturrock 2003: 47).  Phenomenology was a school of philosophical thought that attempted to give philosophy a rational, scientific basis.  Principally, it was concerned with accurately describing consciousness and abolishing the gulf that had traditionally existed between subject and object of human thought.  Consciousness, as they perceived, was always conscious of something, and that picture, that whole, cannot be separated from the object or the subject but is the relationship between them (Sturrock 2003: 50-51).  Phenomenology was made manifest in the works of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre among others.
Gestalt psychology maintained that all human conscious experience is patterned, emphasizing that the whole is always greater than the parts, making it a holistic view (Sturrock 2003: 52).  It fosters the view that the human mind functions by recognizing or, if none are available, imposing structures.
Structuralism developed as a theoretical framework in linguistics by Ferdinand de Saussure in the late 1920s, early 1930s.  De Saussure proposed that languages were constructed of hidden rules that practitioners known but are unable to articulate.  In other words, though we may all speak the same language, we are not all able to fully articulate the grammatical rules that govern why we arrange words in the order we do.  However, we understand these rules of an implicit (as opposed to explicit) level, and we are aware when we correctly use these rules when we are able to successfully decode what another person is saying to us (Johnson 2007: 91).
Claude Levi-Strauss (1908 to 2009) is widely regarded as the father of structural anthropology.  In the 1940s, he proposed that the proper focus of anthropological investigations was on the underlying patterns of human thought that produce the cultural categories that organize worldviews hitherto studied (McGee and Warms, 2004: 345).  He believed these processes were not deterministic of culture, but instead, operated within culture.  His work was heavily influenced by Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss as well as the Prague School of structural linguistics (organized in 1926) which include Roman Jakobson (1896 to 1982), and Nikolai Troubetzkoy (1890 to 1938).  From the latter, he derived the concept of binary contrasts, later referred to in his work as binary oppositions, which became fundamental in his theory. 
In 1972, his book Structuralism and Ecology was published detailing the tenets of what would become structural anthropology.  In it, he proposed that culture, like language, is composed of hidden rules that govern the behavior of its practitioners.  What made cultures unique and different from one another are the hidden rules participants understood but are unable to articulate; thus, the goal of structural anthropology is to identify these rules.  He maintained that culture is a dialectic process: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.  Levi-Strauss proposed a methodological means of discovering these rules—through the identification of binary oppositions.
The structuralist paradigm in anthropology suggests that the structure of human thought processes is the same in all cultures, and that these mental processes exist in the form of binary oppositions (Winthrop 1991). Some of these oppositions include hot-cold, male-female, culture-nature, and raw-cooked. Structuralists argue that binary oppositions are reflected in various cultural institutions (Lett 1987:80). Anthropologists may discover underlying thought processes by examining such things as kinship, myth, and language. It is proposed, then, that a hidden reality exists beneath all cultural expressions. Structuralists aim to understand the underlying meaning involved in human thought as expressed in cultural acts.
Further, the theoretical approach offered by structuralism emphasizes that elements of culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to the entire system (Rubel and Rosman 1996:1263). This notion, that the whole is greater than the parts, appeals to the Gestalt school of psychology. Essentially, elements of culture are not explanatory in and of themselves, but rather form part of a meaningful system. As an analytical model, structuralism assumes the universality of human thought processes in an effort to explain the “deep structure” or underlying meaning existing in cultural phenomena. “…[S]tructuralism is a set of principles for studying the mental superstructure” (Harris 1979:166, from Lett 1987:101).

Points of Reaction:

Some concerns have been expressed as to the epistemological and theoretical assumptions of structuralism. The validity of structural explanations has been challenged on the grounds that structuralist methods are imprecise and dependent upon the observer (Lett 1987:103). Lett (1987) poses the question of how independent structural analyses of the same phenomena could arrive at the same conclusions. The paradigm of structuralism is primarily concerned with the structure of the human psyche, and it does not address historical aspects or change in culture (Lett 1987, Rubel and Rosman 1996). This synchronic approach, which advocates a “psychic unity” of all human minds, has been criticized because it does not account for individual human action historically.
Maurice Godelier incorporated a dynamic aspect into his structural analysis of Australian marriage-class systems and their relationship to demographic factors (Rubel and Rosman 1996:1269). He did so by incorporating Marxist ideas of structures representing an organized reality and the importance of change in society. Godelier took structuralism a step further with his examination of infrastructural factors. In structuralist thought, inherently conflicting ideas exist in the form of binary oppositions, but these conflicts do not find resolution. In structural Marxist thought, the importance of perpetual change in society is noted: “When internal contradictions between structures or within a structure cannot be overcome, the structure does not reproduce but is transformed or evolves” (Rubel and Rosman 1996:1269). This dialectic accounts for the process of antithesis into thesis into synthesis.
Further, others have criticized structuralism for its lack of concern with human individuality. Cultural relativists are especially critical of this because they believe structural “rationality” depicts human thought as uniform and invariable (Rubel and Rosman 1996).
In addition to those who modified the structuralist paradigm and its critics exists another reaction known as “poststructuralism.” Although poststructuralists are influenced by the structuralist ideas put forth by Lévi-Strauss, their work has more of a reflexive quality. Pierre Bourdieu is a poststructuralist who “…sees structure as a product of human creation, even though the participants may not be conscious of the structure” (Rubel and Rosman 1996:1270). Instead of the structuralist notion of the universality of human thought processes found in the structure of the human mind, Bourdieu proposes that dominant thought processes are a product of society and determine how people act (Rubel and Rosman 1996). However, in poststructuralist methods, the person describing the thought processes of people of another culture may be reduced to just that—description—as interpretation imposes the observer’s perceptions onto the analysis at hand (Rubel and Rosman 1996). Poststructuralism is much like postmodernism in this sense.
Materialists would also generally object to structural explanations in favor of more observable or practical explanations. As Lett (1987) points out, Lévi-Strauss’ analysis of the role of the coyote as trickster in many different Native American mythologies rationalizes that the coyote, because it preys on herbivores and carnivores alike, is associated with agriculture and hunting, and life and death (Lett 1987:104) is thus a deviation from natural order, or abnormal. Lett further shows that a materialist perspective is offered by Marvin Harris in the explanation of the recurrent theme of coyote as trickster: “The coyote enjoys the status of a trickster because it is an intelligent, opportunistic animal” (Lett 1987:104). Lévi-Strauss helped to spawn the rationalist-empiricist debate by furthering the inquiry into the idea of panhuman mental processes, and what determines culture.
Another reaction to structuralism is grounded in scientific inquiry. In any form of responsible inquiry, theories must be falsifiable. Structural analyses do not allow for this or for external validation (Lett 1987). Although these analyses present “complexity of symbolic realms” and “insight about the human condition,” they simply cannot be subjected to scientific scrutiny (Lett 1987:108-9).

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Mains answer writing format

60 marks: 600 – 700 words
40 marks: 400 – 450 words
30 marks: 300 – 330 words
20 marks: 200 – 220 words
15 marks: 150 – 170 words
10 marks: 100 – 110 words

Required writing speed 22 words/minute

50 words – Basic concept (explain)
50 words – Causes of origin (background)
300 words – Body (in detail)
150 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, suggestion
50 words – Balanced Conclusion (Depending upon the demand of the Question)

40 words – Basic concept (explain)
20 words – Causes of origin (background)
200 words – Central theme (in detail)
100 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
40 words – Balanced Conclusion

25 words – Basic concept (briefly)
25 words – Causes of origin (background)
150 words – Central theme (in detail)
75 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
25 words – Balanced Conclusion

20 words – Basic concept (briefly)
100 words – Central theme (in detail)
60 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
20 words – Balanced Conclusion

80 words – Central theme
50 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
20 words – Balanced Conclusion

60 words – Central theme
30 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
10 words – Balanced Conclusion

courtesy:- sharp ias

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Nagalim movement

  • Scattered in the north-eastern part of India, Nagas were once headhunters, as they used to cut off the heads of the enemies and preserve them as trophies
  • But with the advent of Christianity and education, the Nagas-comprising more than 30 tribes have evolved a rich culture and tradition. 
  • Since the Naga tribes have been known for their pride and independent identity, the process of politicization led to the urge for creation of separate land for Nagas
  • Separatist Movement can be traced back to 1918, with the founding of Naga Club in Kohima by a group of erudite Nagas
  • The Club tendered a memorandum before the Simon Commission which demanded for exclusion of Nagas from the proposed constitutional reform in British administration in India.
  • nature of protest  took a drastic change with the emerging of Angami Zapu Phizo
  • In 1946, the Naga Club was renamed as Nagaland National Council (NNC)
  • NNC then asked for a separate sovereign political geography comprising Naga inhabited areas of Nagaland, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myammar (Burma), thus marking the beginning of political conflict between Nagas and the Government of India.
  • On 14th of August 1947, the NNC under Phizo's initiation declared independence of Naga region, thereby resulting in his arrest
  • he was released in 1950, and became the president of NNC
  • Disappointed with his talks with Nehru, he turned to armed rebellion to sway the Indian government
  • Indian Army rallied to quash the rebellion, while Phizo escaped to East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and then to London,
  • In 1975, an agreement known as the Shillong Accord was signed between the Indian Government and the NNC.
  • some of the NNC hardcore militants were disappointed with the pact, leading to breakage among the armed cadets.
  • This led to the formation of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland or the NSCN on January by Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S S Khaplang.
  • In  1988, the group split into two factions- the NSCN (IM), led by Isak Chisi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah, and the NSCN (Khaplang), led by Khaplang
  • The goals remain the same as both the outfits are fighting for the establishment of a 'Greater Nagaland' comprising all Naga-inhabited areas within India and Myanmar.
  • Nagalim in theory comprises the Nagaland state, adjoining areas of
    •  Assam (Karbi Anglong, North Cachar),
    • areas of Arunachal Pradesh (Tirap and Changlang),
    •  significant parts of the hill districts of Manipur
    • Parts of Myanmar

Sunday, July 22, 2012

EOV on syria issue

  • From the beginning of the crisis, we have called for cessation of violence in all its forms and by all sides
    • We voted in favour of the resolution in the UN General Assembly that authorized the appointment of an Envoy to engage with the Syrian parties and foreign actors for the resolution of the crisis.
      • We also supported resolutions 2042 and 2043 in expectation that the establishment of the United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) will be able to oversee the implementation of Mr Annan’s six-point plan
        • Instead of a political process, parties have continued to pursue a military approach that continues to cause death and destruction in the country
          • There is an urgent need for the Syrian parties to recommit themselves to the complete cessation of violence and comprehensive implementation of the six-point plan.
            • Syria has both historically and in contemporary times been an important country in the Middle East. Its role in the Middle East peace process and in the stability of the wider region cannot be overemphasized. Prolonged instability and unrest in Syria, therefore, have ramifications for the entire region and beyond.
              • it would have been preferable for the Council members to show flexibility so that a united message could be conveyed to all sides to the Syrian crisis instead of pursuance of domestic interests
                • It is, therefore, regrettable that the Council has not been able to adopt the resolution today and send a joint message

                Sunday, July 15, 2012

                Rohingya muslims

                • Several people have been killed and homes of several hundreds torched in ethnic clashes between Buddhists and the stateless Rohingya Muslims in the Rakhine State

                Who are the Rohingyas?

                • They are Sunni Muslims and ethnic minorities in rakhine state
                • majority population follows Theravada Buddhism

                Where did they come from?

                • Burmese military points to history, maintaining that the Rohingyas crossed over from present-day Bangladesh

                How have the Rohingyas been treated?

                • Under Pinlon Agreement of 1947  Rakhine was included in myanmar but the Rohingyas were kept out of nation-building
                • After a military crackdown in 1978, Rohingyas fled in thousands to Bangladesh
                • Under world pressure, the military agreed to their repatriation.
                • Another crackdown in 1991 again sent Rohingyas across the border
                • Some 30,000 still live in two refugee camps in Bangladesh

                How did the Rohingyas become stateless?

                • Burma Citizenship Law of 1982 sought to deny citizenship to people of Indian and Chinese descent and also targeted the Rohingyas
                • full citizenship was granted to people of 135 national races who lived in Burma before 1823 — i.e. before British colonisation. Rohingyas were not in this list

                Spill over effect of rohingya issue on India

                • Many of these refugees are without jobs and could fall prey to radical ideologies.
                •  They may join the Harkat-ul-Jihadi Islam (HuJI) which has been accused of carrying out bomb blasts in Assam. Another aspect could be the fear of a major spill over of the conflict into India’s north-east in terms of refugee flow from across the porous Bangladesh-India border 

                Friday, July 13, 2012

                Thursday, May 31, 2012

                Pub ad : Q&A

                Q. For Weber, bureaucracy emerged as a neutral , hierarchically organized , efficient and inevitable in contemporary society  15 M
                Weber conceptualized theory of bureaucracy in 19th century german society which was going through a political chaos. He considered bureaucracy as a legal rational authority capable of delivering a stable administration. Weber considered following as important characteristics of bureaucracy
                1.       Hierarchy
                2.       Rule orientation
                3.       Impersonality
                4.       Role specificity
                5.       Neutrality
                6.       Anonymity
                Hierarchically structured organization facilitated in clear definition of roles and responsibilities for various positions in an organization. Neutrality ensured that decisions were made on an objective and rational basis. It insulated bureaucracy from political executive. Bureaucracy with these characteristics delivered stable and efficient administration in germany. Soon it was adopted by various countries. Hence bureaucracy emerged as an inevitable and efficient form of administration in 19th century.
                        However over a period of time, the evils of bureaucracy like goal displacement, stratus quoist orientation emerged. This led to rise of post bureaucratic organizations to address the deficiencies in bureaucratic organizations. However certain features of bureaucracy like impersonality, anonymity are still relevant to 21st century society

                Monday, May 28, 2012

                GREXIT: Will it Happen

                • source- Economic times

                • Unlikely in the near future.The fallout of Greeces exit would be
                  more painful than negotiating fresh conditions under which the austerity measures and repayment obligations could be eased.Any exit has to be voluntary as no country can be pushed out.
                • New French President Francois Hollande has hinted at some relief
                  for Greece as he stands for liberal government spending rather than austerity.Even Chancellor Angela Merkel,who has been the prime mover of the austerity drive,could agree to climb down as a possible Greek exit could hurt German companies and banks and her country would lose all economic benefits it gained from the single currency.
                  Its banking system will collapse,with depositors pulling out funds and banks ownership of Greek bonds becoming worthless.Bank funding will dry up as ECB wont lend anymore.Creation of a new currency,or the return to its old drachma,will lead to depreciation of as high as 80%.That would bloat debt and make imports impossible,causing job losses & poverty.

                  The contagion will spread since faith in the euro would vanish.Peripheral countries such as Portugal and Spain,where the banking system is perceived to be weak,will also come under assault as people will pull out funds.Once the contagion spreads,the financial markets will seize up.
                • .

                  Once it pulls out of the euro zone,its trade with other countries will face tariffs.Movement of capital and labour will also be restricted,causing more pain.

                  Greece will need around 20 -28 billion a year until 2016.Thereafter,the funding requirements could fall below 20 billion and converge towards 10 billion.Under this scenario,bailout III would require around 110 billion from 2015-2020,according to RBS.

                  No.Approximately 20% of the worlds reserves are in euros,and a larger notional amount of euro swaps are traded than dollar swaps.An exit would almost automatically be disorderly as different laws govern different contracts.


                Tuesday, April 3, 2012

                Assorted MCQs

                Q No.44: which among following is true?

                A. National tiger conservation authority is a non statutory body
                B. Project tiger is a central sector scheme 


                Ans: D

                Q No.43:which among following biodiversity hotspots is considered as the centre of origin and diversification of five palms of commercial
                importance(coconut, arecanut, palmyra pam, sugar palm, wild date palm)?

                A:Carribean islands
                B:Tropical andes
                C:Eastern Himalayas

                Ans: C
                Q No.42:which of following is true about Access and benefit sharing protocol

                A. it is a legally binding protocol
                B. It mandates that multinational companies need to share profit with local communities for using original resource only


                Ans D
                Q No.41:which among the following are legally binding agreements

                1.  Convention on bio diversity
                2. Agenda 21
                4.Rio declaration


                Ans: A
                Q No.40:Which of following is true about FATF?

                A. it is an inter governmental policymaking body setup under UN
                B. it has 36 members comprising of 34 nations and 2 organisations , namely EU and ASEAN


                Q No.39:which among following is true

                A. india's energy intensity of GDP is higher than that of brazil
                B. main reason for decline in energy intensity of advanced economies like japan , EU is due to technological improvements


                Ans: A
                Q No.38:with regards to changes in composition of global economy, which among following is true

                A. there is a perceptible shift in global output of goods towards emerging economies
                B. In case of output of services, it is largely concentrated in advanced economies


                Q No.37:Among the BRICS , which among following nation's share in world GDP has declined in last 3 decades
                D:South Africa

                Q No.36:which of following is true with respect to Eurozone?

                A. European central bank acts as lender of last resort
                B. Eurozone has a single fiscal authority 


                Ans: D

                Q No.35:which among following sectors is largest contributor to GHG emissions in india?

                Q No.34:Kala-azar , a vector borne disease, is endemic in four states. which among following is NOT one of the four states
                D:West Bengal

                Q No.33:Which among following is TRUE

                1. Janani shishu suraksha karyakram provides for cashless delivery and free transport from home to hospital

                2. Janani suraksha yojana aims to increase institutional deliveries

                A:1 only
                B:2 only

                Monday, March 26, 2012

                Environment MCQ

                1. whicamong following is true

                •   A. IPCC does not carry out its own original research
                •   B. Its main activity is to monitor climate change

                •   A. A only  B. only  C. A&B DNone
                2. which of following is true about hornbills?
                ·         A. They are mainly seen in western ghats and north east india
                ·         B. It is included under schedule I of wildlife protection act

                ·         A. A only   B. B only  C. A&B  D. None
                3. which among following is true about integrated coastal zone management program?
                ·         A. it is a world bank funded program
                ·         B. It includes mapping of hazard lines of along india’s coast including the islands
                ·         C. Pilot projects are being implemented in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
                ·         Answer

                o   A. A only
                o   B. B&C
                o   C. A,B,C
                o   D. A & C
                4. Which among following is true?
                A. central pollution control board was setup under Air act
                B. Indian vehicles currently use Euro III and Euro IV fuels

                A.      A only
                B.      A&B
                C.      B only
                D.      None

                Sunday, March 25, 2012

                Food additives

                Glycerol monostearate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
                • a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic
                • Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier
                • It occurs naturally in the body as a by-product of the breakdown of fats, and is also found in fatty foods.
                • GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking, and preservative agent
                Stabiliser (food) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
                • stabiliser is an additive to food which helps to preserve its structure.
                • For example it is used in preventing ice crystals from forming in frozen food such as ice cream; and preventing fruit from settling in products such as jam and yogurt.
                Focusing On Preservatives: How They Keep Food Fresh
                • What do preservatives do? They keep foods fresh and inhibit the growth of bacteria, yeasts or molds.
                • Preservatives can be grouped into three general types: antimicrobials that block growth of bacteria, molds or yeasts; antioxidants that slow oxidation of fats and lipids that leads to rancidity, and a third type that fights enzymes that promote the natural ripening that occurs after fruits or vegetables are picked.
                Food-Info.net : What are emulsifiers and why are they used ?
                • Emulsifiers are molecules with one water-loving (hydrophilic) and one oil-loving (hydrophobic) end. They make it possible for water and oil to become finely dispersed in each other, creating a stable, homogenous, smooth emulsion.
                • Some common applications of emulsifiers
                • In bread emulsifier added to the dough is enough to achieve an enhanced volume, a softer crumb structure and a longer shelf-life
                • In Chocolate emulsifiers are added to provide the right consistency of the chocolate, so it can be moulded into plates of chocolate, chocolate bars etc.

                Wednesday, March 7, 2012

                Anthro Notes: Somatotypes

                1919 G Viola
                ·         took 10 measurements of the body and compared the individual to a group average
                ·         he differentiated 3 body types
                1925 E Kretschmer
                ·         described 3 body types and linked them to psychiatric problems
                o   Pyknic - broad, fat, round and sturdy, often become manic depressives
                o   Leptosomic - long and thin,slender limbs,anaemic personality.
                o   Athletic - large and muscular thorax and shoulders, often are schizophrenic
                His work became disused as it assumes 3 discrete types when in reality he had defined 3 extremes of groups
                1940 Sheldon
                 tried to link body type to personality and disease.
                ·         Extreme Endomorphy
                o   spherical body,
                o   weak and fatty arms and thighs.
                o   Slim wrists and ankles.
                o   The thoracic and pelvic part of the skeleton is greater in the anteroposterior than in the transverse direction.
                o   The word endomorphy is derived from endoderm, the embryonic layer from which the digestive system develops.
                o   Susceptible to depression and diabetes.
                ·         Extreme Mesomorphy
                o   Ex: The classical Hercules.
                o    Broad shoulders and chest.
                o    Muscled arms and legs.
                o   The word mesomorphy is derived from mesoderm, the embryonic layer from which the muscle and bone develops.
                o   Susceptible to paranoia, hysteria and coronary heart disease.
                ·         Extreme Ectomorphy –
                o    A Linear man, spindly limbs.
                o   Narrow chest and abdomen.
                o   Little muscle and little fat.
                o   ectomorphy is derived from ectoderm, the embryonic layer from which the skin and nervous system develops.
                o   Susceptible to anxiety, schizophrenia and pulmonary tuberculosis.
                This technique was based on assessment of each component by visual observation of photographs.
                Each component is rated on a scale of 1 - 7 and this is used to give a 3 digit somatotype.
                most common somatotypes are 344, 433 or 352
                He stated that not all parts of the body will show the same characteristics, this difference is called dysplasia
                This method is no-longer used as the use of photographs to evaluate somatotype is too subjective
                1968 Heath & Carter
                ·         Built on sheldon’s model
                ·         idea of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy is retained
                ·         included anthropometric procedures along with photographic analysis to estimate the "present morphological configuration."
                ·         This is the method most commonly used today
                ·         They developed the Heath-Carter chart, used to determine somatotype given the anthropometric data.

                Tuesday, March 6, 2012

                Anthropology Notes: Regionalism

                It is a lack of commonality in ideals and aspirations. It is an ati thesis to nationalism
                The main factors for growth of regionalism are
                1.       Human diversity
                India is a plural society with people divided based on caste,race, religion.
                The society is characterised by hierarchy and rigidity.
                There are thousands of ddifferent langgs, dialects adding to this diversity.
                In order to protect their regional customs and culture various political parties have come up like TDP, DMK, shiv sena
                2.       Economic roots
                Often the feeling of regionalism si due to economic inequality. This was clearly seen in case of speperation of JH frm BH.
                BH comprised of 30% tribals but the tribal region contributed towards 70% of state revenue. But only 10% of funds were spent on tribal areas.
                3.       Social roots
                Identity crisis is when there is a fear of getting alienated from society
                As a result different sections of society form regional groups to gain all the benefits
                There is growing inequality among people.
                This has lead to sons of soil movements in AP, Assam and other north eastern states
                4.       Politics and administration
                Vote bank politics: Appeal to traditional ideals like caste and project socio economic prblms as cultural regional problems
                Administration prblms like boundar disputes and riparian disputes
                5.       Geographical factors
                North east and JK are disconnected from indian politics
                Given special status under consttn
                Allowed to prepserve their traditions
                Rough terain prevents efficient and accesible administration
                6.       Historical
                The divide and rule policy of british
                Policy of isolation and partial isolation