Monday, March 26, 2012

Environment MCQ

1. whicamong following is true

•   A. IPCC does not carry out its own original research
•   B. Its main activity is to monitor climate change

•   A. A only  B. only  C. A&B DNone
2. which of following is true about hornbills?
·         A. They are mainly seen in western ghats and north east india
·         B. It is included under schedule I of wildlife protection act

·         A. A only   B. B only  C. A&B  D. None
3. which among following is true about integrated coastal zone management program?
·         A. it is a world bank funded program
·         B. It includes mapping of hazard lines of along india’s coast including the islands
·         C. Pilot projects are being implemented in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
·         Answer

o   A. A only
o   B. B&C
o   C. A,B,C
o   D. A & C
4. Which among following is true?
A. central pollution control board was setup under Air act
B. Indian vehicles currently use Euro III and Euro IV fuels

A.      A only
B.      A&B
C.      B only
D.      None

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Food additives

Glycerol monostearate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting flaky powder that is hygroscopic
  • Glycerol monostearate, commonly known as GMS, is an organic molecule used as an emulsifier
  • It occurs naturally in the body as a by-product of the breakdown of fats, and is also found in fatty foods.
  • GMS is a food additive used as a thickening, emulsifying, anti-caking, and preservative agent
Stabiliser (food) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • stabiliser is an additive to food which helps to preserve its structure.
  • For example it is used in preventing ice crystals from forming in frozen food such as ice cream; and preventing fruit from settling in products such as jam and yogurt.
Focusing On Preservatives: How They Keep Food Fresh
  • What do preservatives do? They keep foods fresh and inhibit the growth of bacteria, yeasts or molds.
  • Preservatives can be grouped into three general types: antimicrobials that block growth of bacteria, molds or yeasts; antioxidants that slow oxidation of fats and lipids that leads to rancidity, and a third type that fights enzymes that promote the natural ripening that occurs after fruits or vegetables are picked. : What are emulsifiers and why are they used ?
  • Emulsifiers are molecules with one water-loving (hydrophilic) and one oil-loving (hydrophobic) end. They make it possible for water and oil to become finely dispersed in each other, creating a stable, homogenous, smooth emulsion.
  • Some common applications of emulsifiers
  • In bread emulsifier added to the dough is enough to achieve an enhanced volume, a softer crumb structure and a longer shelf-life
  • In Chocolate emulsifiers are added to provide the right consistency of the chocolate, so it can be moulded into plates of chocolate, chocolate bars etc.

Wednesday, March 7, 2012

Anthro Notes: Somatotypes

1919 G Viola
·         took 10 measurements of the body and compared the individual to a group average
·         he differentiated 3 body types
1925 E Kretschmer
·         described 3 body types and linked them to psychiatric problems
o   Pyknic - broad, fat, round and sturdy, often become manic depressives
o   Leptosomic - long and thin,slender limbs,anaemic personality.
o   Athletic - large and muscular thorax and shoulders, often are schizophrenic
His work became disused as it assumes 3 discrete types when in reality he had defined 3 extremes of groups
1940 Sheldon
 tried to link body type to personality and disease.
·         Extreme Endomorphy
o   spherical body,
o   weak and fatty arms and thighs.
o   Slim wrists and ankles.
o   The thoracic and pelvic part of the skeleton is greater in the anteroposterior than in the transverse direction.
o   The word endomorphy is derived from endoderm, the embryonic layer from which the digestive system develops.
o   Susceptible to depression and diabetes.
·         Extreme Mesomorphy
o   Ex: The classical Hercules.
o    Broad shoulders and chest.
o    Muscled arms and legs.
o   The word mesomorphy is derived from mesoderm, the embryonic layer from which the muscle and bone develops.
o   Susceptible to paranoia, hysteria and coronary heart disease.
·         Extreme Ectomorphy –
o    A Linear man, spindly limbs.
o   Narrow chest and abdomen.
o   Little muscle and little fat.
o   ectomorphy is derived from ectoderm, the embryonic layer from which the skin and nervous system develops.
o   Susceptible to anxiety, schizophrenia and pulmonary tuberculosis.
This technique was based on assessment of each component by visual observation of photographs.
Each component is rated on a scale of 1 - 7 and this is used to give a 3 digit somatotype.
most common somatotypes are 344, 433 or 352
He stated that not all parts of the body will show the same characteristics, this difference is called dysplasia
This method is no-longer used as the use of photographs to evaluate somatotype is too subjective
1968 Heath & Carter
·         Built on sheldon’s model
·         idea of endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy is retained
·         included anthropometric procedures along with photographic analysis to estimate the "present morphological configuration."
·         This is the method most commonly used today
·         They developed the Heath-Carter chart, used to determine somatotype given the anthropometric data.

Tuesday, March 6, 2012

Anthropology Notes: Regionalism

It is a lack of commonality in ideals and aspirations. It is an ati thesis to nationalism
The main factors for growth of regionalism are
1.       Human diversity
India is a plural society with people divided based on caste,race, religion.
The society is characterised by hierarchy and rigidity.
There are thousands of ddifferent langgs, dialects adding to this diversity.
In order to protect their regional customs and culture various political parties have come up like TDP, DMK, shiv sena
2.       Economic roots
Often the feeling of regionalism si due to economic inequality. This was clearly seen in case of speperation of JH frm BH.
BH comprised of 30% tribals but the tribal region contributed towards 70% of state revenue. But only 10% of funds were spent on tribal areas.
3.       Social roots
Identity crisis is when there is a fear of getting alienated from society
As a result different sections of society form regional groups to gain all the benefits
There is growing inequality among people.
This has lead to sons of soil movements in AP, Assam and other north eastern states
4.       Politics and administration
Vote bank politics: Appeal to traditional ideals like caste and project socio economic prblms as cultural regional problems
Administration prblms like boundar disputes and riparian disputes
5.       Geographical factors
North east and JK are disconnected from indian politics
Given special status under consttn
Allowed to prepserve their traditions
Rough terain prevents efficient and accesible administration
6.       Historical
The divide and rule policy of british
Policy of isolation and partial isolation

Armenian genocide

  • mass killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks took place during World War I
  • Turkey has resisted widespread calls for it to recognise the 1915-16 killings as genocide
  • hundreds of thousands of Armenians died when the Ottoman Turks deported them en masse from eastern Anatolia to the Syrian desert
  • They were killed or died from starvation or disease.
  • genocide is defined as carrying out acts intended "to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group".
  • Turkish officials accept that atrocities were committed but argue that there was no systematic attempt to destroy the Christian Armenian people. Turkey says many innocent Muslim Turks also died in the turmoil of war.
  • Argentina, Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, Russia and Uruguay are among more than 20 countries which have formally recognised genocide against the Armenians.
Why in news?
  • France recently passed a law which criminalises denial of armenial genocide
  • Turkey is upset with this move of france.
  • Turkey recalled its ambassdor and cut off military cooperation with france

Nepal politics: Finalisation of constitution

  • Its been 5 years since a peace accord was signed to being to an end decade long civil war
  • The constituent assembly has failed to finalise consitution despite its term being extended several  times. Its term will end in may 2012
  • Supreme Court (SC) has declared that the current extension is final, and if the constitution is not promulgated, there should be another election or referendum
  • There is also rising popular pressure to wrap up the prolonged transition, which has been accompanied by abysmal service delivery.
  • The key focus in peace process is integration of former maoist army personnel into nepalese army
  • In november 2011 parties agreed to absorb only some maoist members while others would be given cash incetives and retired
    1. This has created divisions within maoists. Many maoists feel this compromise is humiliating
  • The delay in the peace process has generated mistrust between parties
Type of democracy
  • Another major issue of debate is form of democracy
    1.  Maoists want a directly elected presidential system;
    2. the Nepali Congress want a traditional parliamentary system
    3. Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist Leninist) want a directly elected Prime Minister and a constitutional President
  • Nepali congress fear that Mr. Prachanda will win in a direct presidential election, and then become authoritarian
  • Maoists, for their part, have said they cannot accept a parliamentary system against which they waged a war
  • Many people support presidential system which is more stable than a parliamentary system
  • A compromise model that emerged to resolve disputes was a so-called mixed “French system.”
    1. President would be elected by the people and would take charge of foreign and defence policy;
    2. the Prime Minister would be elected by the legislature and be responsible for day-to-day administration
  • this has drawn criticism on the ground that having dual centres of power will lead to conflict and policy paralysis
  • proposal is to create provinces on basis of cultural identies of people
  • Many from dominant communities like Bahuns and Chhetris (hill Hindu upper castes) are sceptical of federalism
  • On other hand marginalised communities like Janjatis (indigenous ethnic groups) and Madhesis see demarcation of federal states on the basis of cultural identities as essential for their empowerment.