Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Panchayat raj- evaluation

                     73rd and 74th amendment were landmark events in Indian polity.It led to institutionalisation of third tier of governance in form of        panchayats and municipalities.This has led to significant changes in political land scape of India.
In last 2 decades, elections have been held on regular basis for local bodies in most of the places.30% reservation for women has led to empowerment of women in political domain. Some States like Bihar,M.P have further extended womens reservation to 50%.
Several flagship schemes like NREGA,JNNURM are being implemented through local bodies. Local bodies are being empowered to undertake social audit.
In scheduled areas gram sabhas have been given greater powers to regulate money lending, permit land acquisition and other sensitive issues.
Many of leaders from panchayat level have been able to progress to state and national level  politics.Local bodies are serving as nurseries for producing future leaders.
Thus in past 2 decades ,significant strides have been made in deepening democracy.This is reflected in fact that India has  over 30 lakh elected representatives at local, state and national level.
However there are several impediments that have made local bodies ineffective. Constitution envisaged local bodies  as institutes of self government.However state governments reluctance to empower them has  led   to their becoming agents of state government.They lack adequate funds,functions and functionaries. They are forced to depend on state governments.
The rotation of reservation of constituencies led to lack of interest of elected representatives  to invest political capital in developing their constituencies. Though women have been elected to local bodies, in many cases they only serve as proxy for their male relatives.
Deeply entrenched caste system has led to capture of local bodies by upper caste members , thus perpetuating discrimination of local castes.
Therefore real empowerment is lacking. There is growing disconnect between people and elected representatives at state and national level. It is in the interest of everyone to devolve powers to local bodies and make them into effective institutions of self government.This would transform India from a representative democracy to a more inclusive, participative and responsive democracy.

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Green policies of India

      • National Clean Energy Fund
      • Compensatory Afforestation Fund.
      • National Environmental Policy, 2006
        • articulates that only such development is sustainable which respects ecological constraints and the imperatives of social justice
      • National Agricultural Policy
        •  focuses on sustainable development of agriculture by promoting technically sound and economically viable, environmentally non-degrading, and socially acceptable uses of the country’s natural resources
      • National Electricity Policy
        •  underscores the use of renewable sources of energy
      • National Action Plan on Climate Change
        • provides a clear strategy for addressing the challenges posed by climate change
      • voluntary domestic commitment to reduce, by the year 2020, the emissions intensity of our GDP by 20-25 percent as compared to 2005 levels
      • Emissions Trading Schemes
        • to reduce the level of ambient air pollution near major industrial clusters
      • “greening” rural development
        • regenerate and conserve the natural resource base
        • use clean materials, technologies and processes to create environment friendly products
        • strengthen the climate resilience of the rural poor

Friday, September 13, 2013

National Cyber security policy

Topic: Basics of cyber security[Paper III]
National cyber security policy
  secure cyber ecosystem in india and thereby enhance IT adoption in various sectors
  enhance global cooperation on cyber security issues
  protect stored information
  strengthen regulatory framework
  enhance intelligence gathering capabilities with regard to threats to ICT infrastructure
  enhance protection of critical information infrastructure
  develop indigenous security technologies
  create workforce of 5 lakh professionals in cyber security in 5 years
  encourage private businesses to adopt standard security practices
  appropriate legislative intervention to tackle cyber crime

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Thursday, August 15, 2013

Schemes by Ministry of women and child development

Syllabus Topic:Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

Women and child welfare
  • paradigm shift in its approach to social sector issues which were earlier welfare oriented but now look at holistic empowerment
Significant Legislations
    • Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place
      • covers all women irrespective of their age and employment status at the private and public working spaces including domestic workers and those in the unorganised and informal sectors of work
Clients and customers are covered through this Act
    • Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act,
      • protection to children from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography through stringent punishment.
mandates special courts for speedy trial, child friendly procedures in courts and punishment for not reporting the offence to police or appropriate authority
    • Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Amendment Bill, 2012 has been introduced
Schemes for Women
    • Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls
      • all-round development of adolescent girls of 11-18 years by making them self-reliant
by improving their health and nutrition status and facilitating access to learning and public services through various interventions
such as health, education, vocational training and counselling and guidance at the AnganwadiCenters
    • ‘Ujjawala’
      • o prevent trafficking on the one hand and also provides rescue and rehabilitation of victims
      • five specific components-
        • Prevention, Rescue, Rehabilitation, Reintegration and Repatriation of victims of trafficking
    • conditional cash transfer scheme, Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY)
      • included in the DBT scheme of the government.
implemented on pilot basis in 53 selected districts using the platform of ICDS
providing cash to Pregnant & Lactating (P&L) women during pregnancy and lactation in response to individual fulfilling specific conditions
addresses short term income support objectives with long term objective of behavioural and attitudinal changes
    • ‘Swadhar’ scheme
      • home-based holistic and integrated approach.
women in difficult circumstances
provides shelter, food, clothing, counselling, training, clinical and legal aid and aims to rehabilitate the women in difficult circumstances.
train and upgrade skills of women and to provide project based employment under identified sectors
    • Support to Training & Employment Programme
    • One Stop Crisis Centre for Women
      • addresses the need for positive steps to be taken for women in crisis to provide immediate relief for the victims
    • Poorna Shakti Kendra
      • one stop centre for services to women were opened in 150 Gram Panchayats
act as motivators for the women in the Gram Panchayat and are also responsible for providing training on various issues.
Schemes for Children
    • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme
      • restructured and strengthened ICDS will be rolled out in three phases covering 200 high burden districts
early childhood care and development
Anganwadi will now be the first village outpost for health, nutrition and early learning for children and mothers
    • Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)
      • provides a protective environment for children in difficult circumstances, as well as other vulnerable children, through Government-Civil Society partnership
o    Childline’ service, which is an emergency outreach service for children in need of care and protection through a 24-hour phone helpline (1098), has been expanded to 274 cities/districts
o    drafting a national Plan of Action to combat the declining child sex ratio

Saturday, June 15, 2013

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Ethics in administration

This is a mindmap based on Administrative ethics report by 2nd Administrative reforms commission

It is useful for public administration and GS paper IV

 photo ARCethics_zps04a5d09f.jpeg

Monday, May 20, 2013

Tech terms

  1. Web related
  • DoS

    (Denial of Service) A type of attack on (usually) an internet service, which aims to prevent the service from operating properly, often by bombarding it with more information than it can process. Not to be confused with DOS or Disk Operating System.
  • Flame/TrollInternet slang; to flame someone means to insult or put down someone, usually on a web-based platform (YouTube, blog or Facebook comment, forums, chat rooms etc). A troll is similar, but usually refers to general internet behaviour that is intentionally mean and/or abusive.
  • HTML5

    The 5th revision of the HTML (hyper text markup language) standard, a core technology on which the World Wide Web is based. HTML5 is easier for developers, more accessible to multiple types of device and easily incorporates audio/video.

  • Trojan

    Software similar to a virus which could be disguised as something useful, like PC game or mobile app. If launched, it could steal user information or sabotages the device on which it is running.

  1. Photography

  • EXIF

    EXIF or Exchangeable image file format is the format in which a digital camera stores image information like shutter speed, exposure, ISO, date, time & camera model. It can easily be read in the image propertie
  • DoF

    Dof or Depth of Field describes the range of focused area in an image. A shallow DoF means that the foreground or subject is in sharp focus while the background is out of focus.

  1. Smart phones

  • Qi Charging

    Qi (pronounced Chee) is an inductive charging standard developed to transfer electrical power over a maximum distance of 4cm. It uses the theory of electromagnetic induction to charge a mobile device with a special receiver, when placed on top of a Qi charging mat.
  • MHL

    Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is a connection standard developed by a consortium of companies (Sony, Samsung, Nokia & Toshiba). A single 5-pin MHL port (which also looks and works like micro USB) can offer USB host support, carry highspeed data, 1080p HD video and 7.1 channel audio.
  • PPI

    The pixel density of a screen is denoted with PPI (pixels per inch) - it is calculated as diagonal resolution of a display (in pixels) by the diagonal size of the screen. The higher the PPI, the sharper the screen. However, beyond a point, this ceases to matter as the human won't be able to distinguish the added sharpness.
  • Rooting or Jailbreaking

    Rooting means to gain root access to your Android device. This allows you to remove limitations, change the software code and run disallowed apps among others. Jailbreaking is the equivalent term for Apple products.

  1. Computers

  • mAh

    Milli Amp Hour (mAh) is an easy way to determine the capacity of a battery — higher the number, the longer it should last. However, the battery life of a device also depends on how much power it draws in the first place.
  • Big Data

    This is a term used to describe a large volume of structured or unstructured data (usually for enterprises) that cannot be analyzed using the usual database and software tools/techniques
  • SSD vs. HDD

    SSD or Solid State Drive is a type of data storage device that uses flash memory while HDD or Hard Disk Drive is a conventional (and older) type of hard drive with magnetic spinning platters.

    SSDs are faster to read & write data, have no moving parts (hence are not susceptible to shock), are usually more energy efficient and can be much smaller, which is important in the new wave of ultra-compact and efficient laptops. HDDs offer much more storage for the same price as compared to SSDs and hence, are still the preferred choice when it comes to most users

  • SoC

    System on a chip (SoC) usually refers to an integrated circuit that combines CPU & GPU on a single chip. It enables a smaller form factor for devices & better battery life compared to multi-chip devices.

  • USB SS

    Usually visible near the USB ports on newer computers, USB SS is short for USB Super Speed, also known as USB 3.0. USB 3.0 lets you transfer data roughly 10 times faster than USB 2.0

Friday, March 8, 2013

Indira awas yojana

This mindmap is prepared based on review of scheme given in 12th five year plan document

 photo Indiraawasyojana_zps4dc623bd.jpeg

Wednesday, March 6, 2013

Human development

This is a summary of Human development chapter of economic survey [ http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2012-13/echap-13.pdf]
  • to reap demographic dividend population needs to be skilled, healthy and literate
  • india ranks 134 on HDI
    • due to low literacy and poor healthcare
  • ranks 129 on gender inequality'
    • worse than pakistan, bangladesh and srilanka
  • dimensions of inclusive development
    • poverty alleivation
    • employment generation
    • health
    • education
    • women empowerment
    • social welfare
    • financial inclusion
    • social inclusion
  • social sector spending
    • mostly focussed on education[40% of social sector spending]
      • 3.3% of GDP spent on education
    • public health expenditure much lesser than private health expenditure
      • 1.36% of GDP
  • Poverty
    • poverty line
      • based on monthly per cap consumption expenditure
      • MPCE arrived at through NSSO surveys every 5 years
    • poverty declined from 37 to 30% between 2004-05 to 2009-10
      • 1.5% decline per year
    • improvements in IMR and income
  • inequality
    • gini coefficient
      • measures deviation of distribution of income
      • India-35.8  lower than SOuth africa, lanka etc
    • rural consumption expenditure increased at faster rate than urban
  • employment
    • grew by 1.6% per annum in last decade
    • slowed down in second half of decade
    • lower labour force participation rate
      • declined from 430 in 2004-05 to 400 per thousand
      • greater number of people opting for education/skill development
    • female employment
      • fall in female employment in rural areas
      • indicates  more rural women are continuing education
    • unemployment
      • declined in last 5 years
      • unemployment rate decline greater than employment growth
        • more people are opting for education
  • poverty alleivation schemes
      • 53% women participated against mandated 33%
      • enhances bargaining power of agricultural labour
      • reduced distress migration
      • recent initiatives
        • electronic fund management to reduce delays in wage disbursal
        • additional employment beyond 100 days in drought affected areas
        • integration with UID
        • convergence with other schemes like total sanitation campaign
    • NRLM
      • also called ajeevika
      • self employment program
      • assist poor families through bank credit and subsidy for creating income generating assets
      • features
        • every woman member from poor household must be member of a SHG
        • SHG members provided training
        • provision of funds to SHG and also interest subsidy
    • SJSRY
      • For urban unemployed and Under employed
      • encourage self employment
  • social protection programmes
    • AABY
      • life and disability cover
      • 18-59 years
      • includes rural landless
      • includes education scholarship for children
    • RSBY
      • 30000 per family per annum
      • 75:25 share
        • 90:10 special category states
      • smart card based portability
    • National social security fund
      • support schemes for unorganised sector like beedi workers, weavers, toddy tappers etc
  • Rural infrastructure development
    • Bharat nirman
      • water supply
      • electrification
      • irrigation
      • roads
      • housing
      • telecommunication
    • Indira awas yojana
    • PM gram sadak yojana
    • rural drinking water program
      • aims to provide 40 ltr per cap per day  
      • so far 84% rural houses covered
    • sanitation
      • only 32% household have toilets
      • new strategy- community sanitation approach
  • urban infrastructure program
    • JNNURM
      • includes provision of shelter and basic services to urban poor
      • extended till 2014
  • Skill development
    • National skill development council approved 24 training projects
    • Udaan- private sector led skills training program for JK youth
  • Education
    • 12th plan focus
      • teacher training
      • accountability enforcement
      • capacity building in secondary schools
    • Elementary and secondary education
      • Right to education
        • out of school population 134 lakh to 81 lakh between 2005-09
        • inservice teacher traning
        • imrpovement in school infrastructure
      • Mid day meals
        • covers 1-8 standard
        • convergence with NRHM
        • MIS used to monitor scheme
      • RMSA
        • aims at improving access and quality of secondary education
        • includes infrastructure, teacher training
      • Models schools scheme
        • implemented in 6000 educationally backward blocks
        • implemented by state government
      • sakshar bharat
        • adult education
        • aimed at 80% literacy by end of 11th FYP
    • higher education
      • among largest in world with over 600 universities
      • 11th plan initiatives
        • improvement of access
        • curriculum reforms
        • use of IT for distance education
  • Health
    • NRHM
      • launched in 2005
      • increased community involvement
      • decentralized public health system
      • improved manpower, drugs, equipment
    • JSY
      • launched 2005 to reduce MMR
      • promotes institutional deliveries
    • Janani shishu suraksha yojana
      • covers all pregnant women
      • free delivery, drugs, diet, transport etc
    • National vector borne disease contorl, programme
      • to contorl malaria, dnegue, chikungunya, japanese encephalitis, Kala-azar, lymphatic filariasis
      • kala-azar , filariasis to be eliminated by 2015
    • PM swasthya suraksha yojana
      • to correct regional imbalance in territary healthcare
      • 6 AIIMS like institutes to come up in
        • bhopal
        • bhubaneswar
        • jodhpur
        • patna
        • rishikesh
    • AYUSH
      • mainstream allopathic services
  • women and child development
    • ICDS
    • IGMSY
    • Rashtriya mahila kosh
      • micro credit to poor women
    • policies to address violence against women
      • varma committee-examine punishments in cases of aggravted sexual assault
      • usha mehra committee- identify lapses in policing in delhi
      • crisis centres
      • counselling centres
      • financial assistance to victims
  • challenges
    • need to balance imperatives of growth and inclusion
    • growth should lead to higher and better jobs
    • need to move towards more production and growth oriented schemes
    • convergence of schemes
    • empower PRIs and promote decentralisation in plan programme implementation
    • need to convert outlays into outcomes

  • Socio economic caste census
    • puprose - to better identify BPL families
    • based on NC saxena recommended criteria
    • door to door enumeration
    • conducted by states with support from union
  • ASER education survey
    • positive
      • increased enrollment
      • better pupil teacher ratio
      • better provision of girl toilets
      • more libraries
    • negatives
      • fall in basic reading and arithmetic levels
      • children attendance  declined