Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Mains answer writing format

60 marks: 600 – 700 words
40 marks: 400 – 450 words
30 marks: 300 – 330 words
20 marks: 200 – 220 words
15 marks: 150 – 170 words
10 marks: 100 – 110 words

Required writing speed 22 words/minute

50 words – Basic concept (explain)
50 words – Causes of origin (background)
300 words – Body (in detail)
150 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, suggestion
50 words – Balanced Conclusion (Depending upon the demand of the Question)

40 words – Basic concept (explain)
20 words – Causes of origin (background)
200 words – Central theme (in detail)
100 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
40 words – Balanced Conclusion

25 words – Basic concept (briefly)
25 words – Causes of origin (background)
150 words – Central theme (in detail)
75 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
25 words – Balanced Conclusion

20 words – Basic concept (briefly)
100 words – Central theme (in detail)
60 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
20 words – Balanced Conclusion

80 words – Central theme
50 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
20 words – Balanced Conclusion

60 words – Central theme
30 words – Evaluation, Comparison, Contrast, Criticism, Suggestion
10 words – Balanced Conclusion

courtesy:- sharp ias

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Nagalim movement

  • Scattered in the north-eastern part of India, Nagas were once headhunters, as they used to cut off the heads of the enemies and preserve them as trophies
  • But with the advent of Christianity and education, the Nagas-comprising more than 30 tribes have evolved a rich culture and tradition. 
  • Since the Naga tribes have been known for their pride and independent identity, the process of politicization led to the urge for creation of separate land for Nagas
  • Separatist Movement can be traced back to 1918, with the founding of Naga Club in Kohima by a group of erudite Nagas
  • The Club tendered a memorandum before the Simon Commission which demanded for exclusion of Nagas from the proposed constitutional reform in British administration in India.
  • nature of protest  took a drastic change with the emerging of Angami Zapu Phizo
  • In 1946, the Naga Club was renamed as Nagaland National Council (NNC)
  • NNC then asked for a separate sovereign political geography comprising Naga inhabited areas of Nagaland, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myammar (Burma), thus marking the beginning of political conflict between Nagas and the Government of India.
  • On 14th of August 1947, the NNC under Phizo's initiation declared independence of Naga region, thereby resulting in his arrest
  • he was released in 1950, and became the president of NNC
  • Disappointed with his talks with Nehru, he turned to armed rebellion to sway the Indian government
  • Indian Army rallied to quash the rebellion, while Phizo escaped to East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and then to London,
  • In 1975, an agreement known as the Shillong Accord was signed between the Indian Government and the NNC.
  • some of the NNC hardcore militants were disappointed with the pact, leading to breakage among the armed cadets.
  • This led to the formation of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland or the NSCN on January by Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S S Khaplang.
  • In  1988, the group split into two factions- the NSCN (IM), led by Isak Chisi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah, and the NSCN (Khaplang), led by Khaplang
  • The goals remain the same as both the outfits are fighting for the establishment of a 'Greater Nagaland' comprising all Naga-inhabited areas within India and Myanmar.
  • Nagalim in theory comprises the Nagaland state, adjoining areas of
    •  Assam (Karbi Anglong, North Cachar),
    • areas of Arunachal Pradesh (Tirap and Changlang),
    •  significant parts of the hill districts of Manipur
    • Parts of Myanmar

Sunday, July 22, 2012

EOV on syria issue

  • From the beginning of the crisis, we have called for cessation of violence in all its forms and by all sides
    • We voted in favour of the resolution in the UN General Assembly that authorized the appointment of an Envoy to engage with the Syrian parties and foreign actors for the resolution of the crisis.
      • We also supported resolutions 2042 and 2043 in expectation that the establishment of the United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) will be able to oversee the implementation of Mr Annan’s six-point plan
        • Instead of a political process, parties have continued to pursue a military approach that continues to cause death and destruction in the country
          • There is an urgent need for the Syrian parties to recommit themselves to the complete cessation of violence and comprehensive implementation of the six-point plan.
            • Syria has both historically and in contemporary times been an important country in the Middle East. Its role in the Middle East peace process and in the stability of the wider region cannot be overemphasized. Prolonged instability and unrest in Syria, therefore, have ramifications for the entire region and beyond.
              • it would have been preferable for the Council members to show flexibility so that a united message could be conveyed to all sides to the Syrian crisis instead of pursuance of domestic interests
                • It is, therefore, regrettable that the Council has not been able to adopt the resolution today and send a joint message

                Sunday, July 15, 2012

                Rohingya muslims

                • Several people have been killed and homes of several hundreds torched in ethnic clashes between Buddhists and the stateless Rohingya Muslims in the Rakhine State

                Who are the Rohingyas?

                • They are Sunni Muslims and ethnic minorities in rakhine state
                • majority population follows Theravada Buddhism

                Where did they come from?

                • Burmese military points to history, maintaining that the Rohingyas crossed over from present-day Bangladesh

                How have the Rohingyas been treated?

                • Under Pinlon Agreement of 1947  Rakhine was included in myanmar but the Rohingyas were kept out of nation-building
                • After a military crackdown in 1978, Rohingyas fled in thousands to Bangladesh
                • Under world pressure, the military agreed to their repatriation.
                • Another crackdown in 1991 again sent Rohingyas across the border
                • Some 30,000 still live in two refugee camps in Bangladesh

                How did the Rohingyas become stateless?

                • Burma Citizenship Law of 1982 sought to deny citizenship to people of Indian and Chinese descent and also targeted the Rohingyas
                • full citizenship was granted to people of 135 national races who lived in Burma before 1823 — i.e. before British colonisation. Rohingyas were not in this list

                Spill over effect of rohingya issue on India

                • Many of these refugees are without jobs and could fall prey to radical ideologies.
                •  They may join the Harkat-ul-Jihadi Islam (HuJI) which has been accused of carrying out bomb blasts in Assam. Another aspect could be the fear of a major spill over of the conflict into India’s north-east in terms of refugee flow from across the porous Bangladesh-India border 

                Friday, July 13, 2012