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Q. We are moving away from government , and we are moving towards the governance . Such organisations can be coordinated through various multi organizational arrangements 20 marks
Public administration as a field of study has so far traversed 4 paradigms . in 21st century, public administration is traversing through paradigm of public administration as well as apradigm of governance.
Following the attack on world trade center in 2001, the states relaised that state minimalism under NPM was no moe a viable option. This gave an impetus towards governance. Governance involves cooperative arrangements and contractual agreements that control citizens and public service delivery. On other hand, government involves control over citizens and public service delivery by state institutions
Governance calls for networking of state with market and civil society. Since 1990s , there has been a gradual shift from government to governance. Governance empowers people and allows for participative decision making and meets needs of people . It transforms inward looking government organisations into outward looking , dynamic and networked government organisations
In this era of governance, various tasks are performed in coordination and collaboration with multiple organisations. For example , in case of NREGA, state disburses funds to panchayats who spend it on rural works and civil society audits the expenses. Hence governance has made it possible for state, local government and civil society to coordinate and serve the people .